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Understanding ADHD – Causes and symptoms”

Causes and Symptoms

ADHD is a neurodevelopmental condition that affects children and adults. Inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity are persistent symptoms. Understanding the symptoms and causes of ADHD is essential for an early diagnosis and effective treatment.

What Causes ADHD

It is still not known what causes ADHD, but there is a complex interaction of genetic, neurological, and environmental factors. Here are some key factors that could contribute to ADHD development:

Genetics Research shows that ADHD runs in families. A child is more likely to develop ADHD if a parent, sibling or other family member has the disorder. Certain genes are linked to the regulation of neurotransmitters such as dopamine that play a part in attention and impulse management . In daily health routine .

Brain structure and function: Neuroimaging techniques revealed differences in brains of ADHD individuals. These differences are usually related to the areas that control attention, impulse, and executive function. In ADHD, the prefrontal cortex is smaller.

Imbalance of Neurotransmitters: Neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine and dopamine play an important role in controlling attention and impulse control. An imbalance in these neurotransmitters is believed to contribute to ADHD symptoms.

Environmental factors: Prenatal environmental exposure, such as smoking during pregnancy, exposure to lead, or maternal stress may increase the likelihood of ADHD. These factors do not cause ADHD directly, but they can increase the risk.

Low Birthweight and Premature Birth: Children born prematurely, or with low weight at birth may have a greater risk of developing ADHD.

Brain injury In some cases a traumatic injury to the brain can cause symptoms similar to those of ADHD. This is especially true if it affects areas of the brain that are responsible for impulse control and attention.

The symptoms of ADHD

ADHD manifests in a range of symptoms that can be categorized into two main groups: inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity. For an individual to be diagnosed with ADHD they must have symptoms that seriously impair daily functioning over a period of at least six month. Here are some symptoms that may be common to each category.

Inattention symptoms:

Inability to sustain attention: People with ADHD have difficulty focusing on tasks, following through on instructions and completing school or work assignments.in daily health routine . 

Careless Errors They can make careless errors in their schoolwork, at work or in other activities. They might overlook details or skip necessary steps.

Difficulty in Organizing Tasks : It is often difficult to organize tasks, manage time and prioritize them.

Avoiding or disliking tasks that require sustained mental effort: ADHD patients may avoid or dislike activities that demand prolonged mental effort.

Lost Things: It is common to misplace or lose essential items such as keys, wallets or phones.

Forgetfulness :

Forgetfulness is an everyday symptom, including forgetting appointments, chores and commitments.

Hyperactivity-Impulsivity Symptoms:

Fidgeting & Restlessness : ADHD is characterized by excessive fidgeting or restlessness. It is also possible that they have trouble staying seated.

Instability: ADHD is marked by impulsivity. Impulsive behaviors can include interrupting other people, blurting answers out, or making impulsive choices without thinking about the consequences.

Impatience when waiting for turns: People with ADHD can be impatient while waiting for their turn during activities or conversations.

Talking Too Much: Excessive talking in children and an inability for adults to relax quietly are both common symptoms in your health.

Risky Behaviour Some people with ADHD engage in risky behavior, such as reckless driving or substance abuse.

The severity and combination can vary from one person to another. Additionally, not all individuals with ADHD exhibit hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms. It can also present as a predominantly inattentive form of ADHD.

Understanding the symptoms and causes of ADHD is crucial for an early diagnosis and management. There is no cure for ADHD but a combination treatment, such as behavioral therapy and medication, can enable people with ADHD to lead fulfilling lives. It is important to seek professional help from a mental health or healthcare specialist for an accurate diagnosis and a tailored treatment plan. Individuals with ADHD can manage their symptoms, and flourish in both their personal and professional life.





Diagnosing ADHD – Assessments and Criteria.”


Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a neurodevelopmental condition that affects millions worldwide. Diagnoses of ADHD are complex and involve a comprehensive assessment of the individual’s history, behavior, and psychological evaluation. This article will explore the diagnostic criteria used to diagnose ADHD.

The Diagnostic Criteria of ADHD

The DSM-5, the standard reference manual for mental health professionals, is used to diagnose ADHD. According to DSM-5 there are three major presentations of ADHD.

Predominantly inattentive Presentation is characterized by inattention symptoms, including difficulty in sustaining attention, careless mistakes and forgetfulness in everyday activities.

Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Presentation: This presentation includes symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity, such as fidgeting, interrupting others, and difficulty waiting for one’s turn.

Combined Present:

This presentation is characterized by a combination inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity.

To be diagnosed with ADHD, an individual must exhibit at least six or more symptoms of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity for children up to age 16. Adults and adolescents older than 17 years old must exhibit five symptoms. The symptoms must be present for a minimum of six months and be disruptive in daily life. They cannot be explained by other mental disorders or medical conditions.

To confirm ADHD, symptoms must be present in at least two settings (such as school, home or the workplace). The symptoms must also result in a clinically significant impairment of social, academic or occupational functioning.

The Assessment Process for Diagnosing ADHD

The diagnosis of ADHD is not an easy one-size fits all process. It is important to conduct a thorough evaluation, which may include several steps and a variety of sources of information. This is a brief overview of the evaluation process:

Initial screening: Typically, the process begins with a pre-screening. Teachers, parents or caregivers can complete questionnaires to assess an individual’s symptoms and behavior. These questionnaires can help identify possible indicators of ADHD.

Comprehensive Assessment A healthcare professional with ADHD expertise, such as a psychiatrist, psychologist or pediatrician, will conduct a comprehensive evaluation. This assessment involves a thorough interview with both the patient and their caregivers. The clinician will inquire about the patient’s medical and developmental history as well as current symptoms.

Behavioral observation:

 The clinician can observe the behavior of the patient in a controlled setting, like a clinic or an office. This observation confirms the presence of symptoms such as inattention, hyperactivity or impulsivity.

Psychological Test In certain cases, psychological testing may be conducted to assess executive functions, emotional well-being, and cognitive function. These tests can give valuable insight into an individual’s strengths, weaknesses and abilities.

Review Medical and School Records The clinician can request to review medical records including birth and prenatal history as well as school records. These documents may provide more information on developmental milestones or educational difficulties.

ADHD Rating Scales:

 ADHD ratings scales such as the ADHD Rating Scale-5 or Conners Comprehensive Behavior Rating Scales Conners CBRS are often used in the assessment process. These scales collect information from several informants including parents and teachers to determine the severity of ADHD symptoms.

Rule out Other Conditions ADHD shares many symptoms with other mental conditions such as anxiety disorders, depression and learning disabilities. By examining the medical history of an individual and performing additional tests if needed, the clinician can rule out other conditions.

Collaboration between Teachers and Schools In the case children, collaboration between teachers and schools is crucial. The presence of symptoms can be confirmed by educational professionals.

Diagnosis and Feedback After the evaluation is completed, the healthcare professional provides feedback and discusses the diagnosis with the patient and their family. A treatment plan is developed if the diagnosis has been confirmed.

Challenges to Diagnosis

The diagnosis of ADHD can be difficult due to several factors. The symptoms of ADHD can overlap with those of other conditions. This makes differential diagnosis crucial. The assessment is subjective, as it relies on the self-reporting and observation of symptoms. Third, because the threshold for diagnosing children and adults is different, it’s important to take age and development into consideration.


The diagnosis of ADHD is a complicated process that requires a detailed assessment of the individual’s history, behavior and psychological evaluation. The DSM-5 criteria must be followed and information from various sources should be considered, such as parents, caregivers and teachers. A thorough assessment will allow healthcare professionals to provide an accurate diagnosis, and create a treatment plan that helps individuals with ADHD better manage their symptoms.

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